The wood industry is an important sector of the economy, and the lexicon associated with it reflects the many different activities that take place within the industry. From felling trees and transporting timber to milling lumber and making paper, there are a variety of terms that describe the various stages of the recycling process. Here are just a few of the most commonly used terms:
Acclimation: A process, when the lumber is brought into an environment where it will be used, so that it can adjust to the new climate.
Back Relief: It is the quarter sawn or rift sawn lumber that is used in construction or other applications where the lumber needs to have dimensional stability. The cuts of lumber are usually at a right angle to the grain of the wood.
Bark: A protective layer that covers the trunk, branches, and roots of a tree. It is made up of dead cells that are constantly being shed and replaced. The bark serves many important functions, including protecting the tree from damage and pests, regulating water loss, and providing support.
Bevel: refers to any surface that has been cut at an angle other than a 90 degree angle.
Dimensional lumber: a term used to describe lumber that is finished and ready to be used in construction projects. It is cut to standard dimensions, making it easier to use in construction. Dimensional lumber includes both hardwoods and softwoods, and can be either new or reclaimed.
Durability: A measure of a material’s ability to resist wear, tear, and damage. It’s important to note that durability is not the same as strength. Strength is a measure of a material’s ability to hold up under loads and stress. While strength is important, it’s not the only factor that determines how long a piece of wood will last.Durability also depends on the type of wood. Hardwoods are typically more durable than softwoods because they have a denser grain and are less susceptible to damage from moisture and insects.
End Cut: A type of lumber that is cut from the end of a log.
Flat sawn: The wood is cut from the log in a way that results in wide boards with a relatively straight grain pattern.
Felling: The process of cutting down trees.
Grain Pattern: The direction, size, texture, and figure of the wood fibers. It is caused by the difference in rate of growth in different areas of the tree.
Growth Ring: The layer of wood that is added to the tree's trunk each year as the tree grows. Growth rings are formed by changes in the width of the sapwood. Growth rings are often used by scientists to determine the age of a tree. However, they can also be used to provide information about a tree's growth rate and the environment in which it was growing. For example, a tree with widely spaced growth rings is likely to have grown in a forest where there was plenty of sunlight and room for it to grow. A tree with closely spaced growth rings, on the other hand, is likely to have grown in a crowded forest where it had to compete for sunlight. Growth rings can thus provide valuable insights into a tree's past.
Hand hewn wood: A type of timber that has been roughly shaped by hand using an axe or other tool.
Hardwood: A type of tree that are characterized by their wide, flat leaves and hard, durable wood. Some of the most common hardwoods include oak, maple, douglas fir, cherry, and birch.
Harvesting: The process of collecting timber from an area.
Heartwood: The innermost layer of wood and consists of dead cells that give the tree strength and support.
Logging: The process of transporting felled trees to a sawmill or other processing facility.
Milling: The process of cutting logs into lumber at a sawmill.
Quarter sawn lumber: A type of wood that is cut into fourths, or quarters, lengthwise.
Reclaim: To make fit for a new or different purpose. Reclaimed materials are those that have been used before and still retain some utility, but which have been given a new purpose. This adage is especially true when it comes to reclaimed wood. Reclaimed wood is lumber that has been salvaged from old buildings, barns, fences, and other structures. The wood is then cleaned, milled, and sold for a variety of different purposes. Because it has already been used once, reclaimed wood has a unique patina and character that can't be found in new lumber.
Reforestation: The process of replanting trees in an area that has been cleared for development or other purposes.
Rough sawn: A type of lumber that has been cut from a tree but has not been planed or processed in any way. As a result, the boards still have their rough, natural surface.
Sapwood: The outermost layer of wood and consists of living cells that transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
Sawmill: A facility where logs are cut into lumber.
Shiplap: A type of wooden board that is commonly used for siding and walls. The boards are typically made from pine or cedar, and they have a natural finish that helps to create a rustic look. Shiplap boards are also characterized by their thick, overlapping edges. This design feature helps to create a tight seal between the boards, making them ideal for use in areas where moisture is a concern.
Softwood: A type of wood that come from gymnosperm trees. These trees have seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary and they reproduce using cones instead of flowers. Some examples of softwood trees include pine, fir, and cedar.
Square Foot: A square foot is a unit of area. It is commonly used in the United States and is equal to one foot square. In other words, it is a 12-inch by 12-inch square. The square foot is a unit of measurement that is mainly used in the field of construction. It can also be used in other areas such as landscaping, gardening, and interior design.
Sustainable forestry: A type of forestry that focuses on protecting forests and managing them in a way that does not damage the environment.
Thoroughbred farm: A horse breeding farm that specializes in the breeding and raising of Thoroughbred horses. The term "Thoroughbred farm" can refer to either a commercial operation that sells its horses or a private farm that breeds horses for racing or other sport.
Tongue & Groove : a type of joint in which two flat pieces of wood are joined together by interlocking their extended, grooved tongues and ridges.
Twisting: A type of warping in which one tree's branch emerges from the other's plane.
Warping: Distortion in a piece of wood during the process of aging.
Wear Layer: The topmost layer of a wood floor. It is the layer that is most susceptible to scratching, staining, and other forms of wear and tear.
Weathered Stain: Weathered stain is a type of wood stain that is designed to give wood a natural, aged look. The term can refer to several different finishes, but they all have one thing in common: they involve using a dark stain to give the wood a weathered look. Weathered stains can be applied in a number of different ways, and each method will create a unique finish. It is often used on outdoor wallboards and decks, as it helps to protect the wood from the elements.
Wood Stain: A type of paint or pigment that is used to color wood. It is typically made from a combination of oil, resin, and pigment, and it is applied using a brush, cloth, or sponge. Unlike regular paint, wood stain is designed to penetrate the wood, making it more durable and resistant to damage. Wood stain can be used for both decorative and protective purposes. It comes in a variety of colors, from light stains that highlight the grain of the wood to dark stains that give the wood a rich, deep color. Wood stain can be applied to any type of wood, including hardwoods and softwoods.